Health Let the facts speak

Public spending as a % of GDP on health in 2007-2011 is 1.1% (less than half of allocations for military) (data from Unicef)
Malnutrition –


• Percentage of Children under 3 years who are Underweight –
o NFHS 1 (1992-93) – India 47.9 , West Bengal 53.2, Gujarat 42.7
o NFHS 3 (2005-06) – India 40.4 , West Bengal 37.6, Gujarat 41.3


               So, between 1993 to 2006 the proportion of malnourished children in West Bengal has decreased by 15.6% , more than double of the national average of 7.5%. In contrast in Gujarat the improvement is a bare 1.4%.


• Anaemia (mostly caused by poor nutrition) in Women of age group 15-49
o NFHS 2 (1998-99) – India 51.8% , West Bengal 62.7%, Gujarat 46.3%
o NFHS 3 (2005-06) – India 55.3% , West Bengal 63.2%, Gujarat 55.3%


               So, between 1999 -2006 the proportion of anaemic women increased by 0.5% against a national increase of 3.5%. In stark contrast anaemia became 9% more prevalent in women in Gujarat in the same time period. 
Basic health care –


• Diarrhoea still kills 10% of infants and 14% of 0-4 Year olds. Only 43% of children suffering diarrhoea get any kind of oral rehydration therapy.  (UNICEF, Management practices for Childhood Diarrhoea in India, 2009)
• Pneumonia – Only 12.5% patients get antibiotic therapy for suspected pneumonia. (UNICEF, 2008-2012)
• Immunisation – Inspite of the Universal Immunisation programmes only 61% of children are “fully immunized” . (Coverage Evaluation Survey 2009, MHFW)
• Janani Suraksha Yojona – Only 32.5% of Women receive any assistance from the JSY scheme. (Coverage Evaluation Survey 2009, MHFW)

Primary health care centres (All India Executive summary for NRHM, 30th June 2013)


• While the norm is 1 PHC for every 20-30,000 population we have 1 PHC for every 34876.
• Of the 24049 PHCs only 8236 are functioning around the clock. 
• 903 PHCs have no doctors. There is a 12% shortfall of doctors.


Secondary health care centres (NRHM) (All India Executive summary for NRHM, 30th June 2013)
• Of 19332 specialists required only 9914 posts have been sanctioned and only 5858 specialised doctors are in position (RHS 2012).


Infant Mortality Rate (per thousand) –  Sample Registration Survey Bulletin Volume 47 No.1


•  India – 80(1991) to 50 (2009) to 42 (2012)
• West Bengal – 71 (1991) to 33 (2009) to 31 (2010) to 32 (2012)
• Gujarat – 69 (1991) to 48 (2009) to 38 (2012)
• From 1991 to 2009, IMR decreased in West Bengal by 38 against the national average of 30. In Gujarat the improvement was only 21, far less. 
• Since 2011 the Infant Mortality rate in West Bengal has increased again from 31 to 32 per thousand. 
Infant means less than 1 year old

Maternal Mortality Ratio – (per million) Statistical Year Book, India 2014, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.Chapter 45.

• India has been termed “slow/off-track” in achieving the Millenium development goal of reducing Maternal Mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The MMR stood at 212 in 2007-2009 and is likely to be 139 by 2015, whereas the target was 109. 
• The number of deliveries performed by trained personnel was a mere 52% by 2007-2008. The projected percentage for 2015 is 62% which falls far short of the target 100% coverage. 
Sanitation facilities - Till 2011 only 23.9% of rural households and 59.7% of Urban Households had sanitation facilities (Unicef.org/infobycountry/india_statistics.html). 
Water Supply –  Safe drinking water reaches only 85.5 % households (91.4% Urban, 82.7% Rural).  (Statistical Year Book, 2014, MOSPI)

Abbreviations used – NFHS = National Family Health Survey
NRHM = National Rural Health Mission
MHFW = Ministry of Health and Family Wellfare



REFERENCES  - The names of the original reports have been included with each point in Italics.
1. Links to all data tables available at website of Planning Commission, <planningcommission.nic.in/data/datatable/index.php?data=datatab > ,  
2. Website of UNICEF India <www.unicef.org/india/health_6679.htm>
3. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine
4. Website of Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation <mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/site/inner.aspx?status=3&menu_id=82>
5. Website of Census of India www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census
6. Health Policies and Programmes in India, Dr. D.K.Taneja